Hands safety

Protective gloves are one of the most popular personal protection products that protect worker’s hands – body parts which are at particular risk of damage and injuries in many professions.

According to 89/686/EEC directive on safety requirements and protection of workers’ health by using personal protective equipment at workplace, products are divided into three safety categories depending on the risk level to which a worker is exposed while performing a given type of work.

Categories of protection

When it comes to hand protection, there is a division as follows:

Category I

Gloves which provide basic protection. To be applied when there is low risk.

This type of gloves protect against the damage to the surface of the skin, temperatures up to 50°C and against mild chemical substances (e.g. cleaning agents). Most of protective gloves and household gloves belong to this group.

The gloves improve work comfort and their use is not conditioned by the results of tests conducted by research bodies (certification bodies).

The gloves of category 1 have to meet the requirements of EN420 standard “Protective gloves – General requirements and testing methods”.

Category II

Gloves which provide protection during works which entail a medium risk of damage.

These gloves are used when the risk is classified as neither low nor very high. Products of this category usually protect against mechanical injuries – the type of risk which is very common in most industrial activities. This group also contains gloves which protect against cold and heat.

The standard which usually guides the assignment of gloves to this category is the EN388 standard.

Category III

This category includes gloves which are used when there is risk of decline of health or life.

The gloves which are assigned to this category of personal protection equipment are used when there is a risk of serious and/or permanent damage to palms and hands, e.g. when working with high voltage, highly dangerous chemicals etc.

Protection classes for medical devices

According to 93/42/EEC directive, there is the following division of protection classes for medical devices:

Class 1

This class includes products with the lowest protection level. The assignment is based on declaration of conformity provided by the producer. The class contains products introduced on the market as sterile and featuring a measuring function.

Class 2a

Products which protect against moderate dangers where supervision and intervention of a notified body which issue CE compliance certificates is obligatory at the production stage.

Class 2b

Products with a high danger potential – the control and supervision of a notified body is obligatory at the design and production stage.

Class 3

This class is reserved for the most dangerous products which have to be approved before they are introduced on the market.

Structure, properties and types of leather used for production of gloves

Leather and combined gloves are recommended for reloading, transportation and cleaning works.

When it comes to the construction, leather gloves and combined leather-fabric gloves are similar. In most cases the gloves are available in five finger model.

In the case of combined gloves, the palm is made of pigskin, cowhide or goatskin (grain or split). The back and the cuff are made of cotton fabric – drill or cotton-like fabric.

The glove is reinforced with leather at the fingertips and on the back of the hand to protect the metacarpal bones.

To protect the seams against abrasion the gloves feature a narrow strip of leather – a so-called welt.

Some gloves feature a shock absorber on the back of the hand which is made of nonwoven fabric or polyurethane foam.

To ensure a snug fit of the glove above the wrist, sometimes gloves feature a rib cuff made of a rubber tape.

Depending on the sewing manner, one may distinguish full palm gloves – the palm is made of one piece of leather, and gloves with stitches.

In most cases gloves feature a cuff made of leather or the fabric of which the back of the glove is made. The cuff may be stiffened and hemmed to provide extra protection.

For thermal insulation purposes, gloves may feature internal lining, insulating pads, and, if there is a need to protect hands against cutting, pads made of Kevlar® (name reserved by DuPont).

Fabrics used in the production of leather and fabric-leather gloves

Split

This is the internal layer of leather. It is characterized by its porous surface, thanks to which it absorbs moisture more easily than grain, and firm grip. The thickness depends on the thickness of the grain which is separated beforehand and on whether or not the split is split into two layers.

Grain

This is the external surface of leather. It is soft and moisture and abrasion resistant. It is quite common to use wastes of grain leather from the furniture industry in the production of gloves. This type of leather is very resistant to abrasion and is characterized by superior quality. Sanded leather, the so-called nubuck, is also used.

Nubuck

It is a tanned soft skin finished on the grain side upon its prior sanding. Nubuck is chrome tanned (unlike suede, which is oil tanned). Nubuck can be made of leather which suffered minimum damage to the grain, which makes it quite an expensive material.

Nubuck is very durable, hard and thick.

Suede

Tanned animal skin without grain. It is soft, absorbent and has high tensile strength.

Structure and properties of rubber and plastic gloves. Materials used in the production of gloves

These gloves are used when it is necessary to protect hands against water or chemicals.

Due to some specific properties of the materials used, they provide protection against chemicals, microorganisms and mechanical protection against abrasion, tear or puncture.

On the inside, gloves may be flocked or coated with powder to facilitate putting the gloves on and off.

PVC (polyvinyl chloride)

PCW - mechanical resistance and harmful substances

Abrasion: 0%
100%
Perforation: 0%
100%
Tearing: 0%
100%
Puncture: 0%
100%
Oils and fats: 0%
100%
Hydrocarbons: 0%
100%
Acids: 0%
100%
Non-ketone solvents: 0%
100%
Ketone solvents: 0%
100%
Cleaning agents, detergents: 0%
100%

It is used in the production of thin gloves which are supposed to protect against water and mild detergents. Stronger gloves coated with or immersed in vinyl are characterized by firm grip and abrasion resistance.

Major advantages:

  • High resistance to acids and bases.

Precautions:

  • Low mechanical resistance. Avoid contact with ketone solvents and aromatic solvents.

Latex (natural rubber)

Latex - mechanical resistance and harmful substances

Abrasion: 0%
100%
Perforation: 0%
100%
Tearing: 0%
100%
Puncture: 0%
100%
Oils and fats: 0%
100%
Hydrocarbons: 0%
100%
Acids: 0%
100%
Non-ketone solvents: 0%
100%
Ketone solvents: 0%
100%
Cleaning agents, detergents: 0%
100%

It is superior to other materials in terms of tensile strength, and convenient to handle. Due to protein content in natural latex rubber it may induce allergic reactions.

Major advantages:

  • Very high elasticity,
  • Tear resistance,
  • High resistance to many acids and ketones.

Precautions:

  • Avoid contact with oils, fats and hydrocarbon derivatives.

Nitrile

Nitryl - mechanical resistance and harmful substances

Abrasion: 0%
100%
Perforation: 0%
100%
Tearing: 0%
100%
Puncture: 0%
100%
Oils and fats: 0%
100%
Hydrocarbons: 0%
100%
Acids: 0%
100%
Non-ketone solvents: 0%
100%
Ketone solvents: 0%
100%
Cleaning agents, detergents: 0%
100%

Synthetic equivalent of natural rubber. It shows greater resistance to abrasion and cutting than e.g. vinyl. It maintains its form and can be washed. It is biodegradable.

Strong gloves coated with or immersed in nitrile demonstrate firm grip and high resistance to abrasion and cuts. They are resistant to organic solvents, acids, hydrocarbons, oils and fats. Nitrile gloves are environment-friendly.

Major advantages:

  • Very high resistance to abrasion and puncture,
  • Very high resistance to hydrocarbon derivatives.

Precautions:

  • Avoid contact with ketone solvents, oxidizing acids and organic nitrogen products.

Neoprene

Neopren - mechanical resistance and harmful substances

Abrasion: 0%
100%
Perforation: 0%
100%
Tearing: 0%
100%
Puncture: 0%
100%
Oils and fats: 0%
100%
Hydrocarbons: 0%
100%
Acids: 0%
100%
Non-ketone solvents: 0%
100%
Ketone solvents: 0%
100%
Cleaning agents, detergents: 0%
100%

Neoprene gloves are resistant to ketones, acids, hydrocarbons, oils, fats and organic solvents.

They show lower resistance to abrasion than PVC or nitrile gloves. The name “neoprene” is commonly used in Poland, but it is a name reserved by DuPont®.

Major advantages:

  • Resistance to many chemicals: acids, aliphatic solvents,
  • High resistance to sunlight and ozone.

Polyurethane (PU)

Gloves of this material have very good dexterity, abrasion resistance and tensile strength, as well as oils, greases, organic solvents and dilute acids and bases.

PVA (Polyvinyl alcohol)

PVA gloves ensure a firm grip even when dealing with wet surfaces. They are resistant to ketones, oils, hydrocarbons and organic solvents. Attention: this is one of the most expensive materials!

UHMWPE

Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, in other words high-modulus polyethylene.

Structure and properties of knitted and textile gloves

Depending on the fabric and technology applied, knitted gloves may be used for various types of work:

  • Gloves made of polyamide and/or polyester are used in automotive industry and for light installation and cleaning works,
  • Cotton gloves are used for installation and sorting works,
  • Polycaprolactam gloves may be used e.g. in food industry if there is contact with foodstuffs (poultry gutting, meat portioning etc.),
  • String knit gloves made of Kevlar® (name reserved by DuPont®)/Twaron® fiber (name reserved by Teijin Aramid) are used if there is a risk of cutting the skin (automotive, glass, electronics industries).

Properties of textiles and knitted fabrics

FabricAbrasion-resistant at various thickness rates of the fibersTensile strength cN/dtxElasticity %Wet tensile strength to dry tensile strength %Moisture absorption % 65% RF
Cottonhigh3-46-10105-1158
Woolmedium1-225-3575-8515
Rayonmedium2-2,515-2550-6013
Acrylic fiberhigh3-420-4090-951,5
Polyester (Terylene)high4-520-4095-1000,5
Polyamide (Nylon)very high5-820-4090-954
Nomex®very high4-515-2090-954,5
Kevlar® / Twaron®the highest*20-252-590-953
Explanation: cN-Newton, drx - weight (in grammes) per 10,000m of fiber, RF - relative humidity,*) highest of those presented in the table
ATTENTION: Nylon shows greater tenacity than polyester, but the Cordura® fabric is at least twice as durable as nylon and three times as durable as polyester.

Knitted gloves may be also used as internal layer of other types of gloves to provide extra protection: insulation, protection against cuts and high temperature etc.

Weave types used in the production of knitted and textile gloves

One should remember that the properties of the final product are a result of both the fiber used and the type of weave used to connect the fibers.

Basic types of weaves:

  • plain weave – the simplest kind of weave. It is very durable.
  • twill weave – it has a characteristic spatial structure done by a special diagonal pattern of fibers. Due to the specific nature of weaving, it has both front and back side.
  • satin weave – it is very smooth and glossy. Final material appears to be very soft, but at the same time durable.

Tricot is a basic type of warp knitting. The yarn zigzags vertically in two neighbouring columns forming open and closed loops in given rows.

Popular types of tricot include:

  • Plain tricot – there is no difference between the left and the right side – the surface is not very elastic,
  • Beam knitting – it ensures high elasticity, used in rib cuffs,
  • Interlock – the wales on each side are exactly opposite each other and are locked together, close and less stretchy than the beam knitting,
  • Terrycloth – the use of two individual threads for one stitch, one of which is longer and forms a loop.

The insulation properties depend on the appearance of the fiber and air volume. Fabrics contain 70% of air and tricot 80-90%.

Fabrics used in the production of knitted and textile gloves

Cotton

Soft fiber derived from plants widely used in textile industry.

It is a very breathable fabric which does not cause static electricity and is easy to wear. It is more durable when it is wet.

Wool

It is a textile fiber obtained from hair of sheep, goats, rabbits, camels or llamas.

Its characteristic features are crimp, scales and lanolin content, which makes it a perfect material for manufacturing textiles.

Rayon

In other words, cellulose fiber obtained from cellulose from wood pulp processed with the use of sodium hydroxide. Manufactured as a whole (silk, corduroy) or in a cut form (cotton-like and wool-like fabrics).

Acrylic

Polymer fabric which contains at least 85% of polyacrylonitrile. Acrylic and polyacrylic fabrics are characterized by high tensile strength, low water absorption and are very soft.

They are resistant to oil, a majority of chemicals and are resistant to damage caused by direct exposure to sun.

Polyester (PE) – Terylene

Strong and durable synthetic fabric. It is very resistant to penetration, and if wet, it dries quickly. It is often used as an external surface for other fabrics. It ensures a moderate air permeability rate.

Polyamide (PA) - Nylon

A group of strong and durable synthetic fabrics. They demonstrate high chemical resistance to oils, fats and petrol. Another advantage is their resistance to abrasion and high tensile strength, as well as size stability in changing temperature.

Nylon is one of the most popular types of polyamide.

Nomex®

Fabrics made of Nomex® demonstrate high mechanical and thermal resistance. Nomex® is a registered trademark of DuPont®.

Its physical and chemical properties are similar to those of Kevlar® but Nomex ® is easier to finish.

Kevlar® / Twaron®

Commercial names of products from the polyamide group. The fabric shows high tensile strength. It is resistant to the activity of organic solvents.

The fiber demonstrates high degree of durability thanks to the applied spinning method. Other advantages of the fiber include incombustibility, resistance to wear, lack of electrical conductivity, resistance to cuts and high temperature.

The fabric is low-shrinkage, carbonizes at the temperature of 425 to 475°C, does not melt and is incapable of burning without the flow of a combustible – it self extinguishes.

Gloves made of this material are three times as resistant to cutting as cotton gloves and five times as resistant to cutting as leather gloves.

Kevlar® and Twaron® have a nearly identical physicochemical structure. Kevlar® is a name reserved by DuPont® and Twaron® is a name reserved by Teijin Aramid.

Cordura®

High-grade fabric which demonstrates high durability and strong resistance to abrasion. The fabric is made of polyamide with a durable polyurethane coating with polytetrafluoroethylene apertures. The name is reserved by DuPont.

Structure and properties of coated gloves

To enhance the universality of gloves made of knitted fabrics or provide extra protection the gloves can be coated with rubber or synthetic fibers.

The part of a glove which is always coated is the palm, whereas on the back the coating may be complete or incomplete to ensure better breathability.

The coating may vary in texture, depending on the intended roughness of the surface and grip.

The cuff of coated gloves may be stiff or finished with a rib cuff.

The application of such gloves varies with the type of coating. Usually, they are characterized by firm grip, they are durable and the palm is resistant to penetration. They are used in transport industry to carry wet or greasy objects, in installation works and in construction industry.

Apart from using complete coating in case of some gloves, gloves may feature one or two-sided dots coating to improve the grip. These gloves are useful in household works, when there is a need to carry light and slippery objects, and in installation works.

Chemical resistance

NameLatexNeopreneNitrilePVC
Acetone
Benzaldehyde
formaldehyde 30%
Acetaldehyde
Amyl alcohol
Benzyl alcohol
Butyl alcohol (or n-butanol)
Diacetone alcohol
Ethyl alcohol (or ethanol)
Isobutyl alcohol (or isobutanol)
Methyl alcohol (methanol)
Concentrated ammonia
Aniline
Asphalt
Ammonium nitrate
Potassium nitrate
Sodium nitrate
Calcium nitrate
Hair colorants
Benzene
White spirit
Automotive petrol
Acetic anhydride 50%
Borax
Bromides
Beets
Butoxyethanol
Chlorine
Chloracetone
Ammonium chloride
Methyl chloride
Potassium chloride
Sodium chloride
Calcium chloride
Chlorobenzene
Chloroform
Cutting oil
Hydraulic fluids (esters)
Potassium cyanide
Cyclohexane
Cyclohexanol
Cyclohexanone
Carbon tetrachloride
Household detergents
Poultry
Dichloromethane
Potassium dichromate
Diethanolamine
Dibutyl phthalate
Diethyl phthalate
Sodium disulphite
Dibutyl ether
Petroleum ether
2-Etoxyethanol
Ethyl etoxyacetate
Ethylamine
Ethylaniline
Glycerol phthalic paint
Watercolour paints
Phenol
Fluorides
Formaldehyde
Tributyl phosphate
Potassium phosphate
Trisodium phosphate
Tricalcium phosphate
Furfural (furfuraldehyde)
Glycerol
Ethylene glycol
Glycols
Hexane
Herbicides
Isobutyl ketone
Methyl isobutyl ketone
Methyl ethyl ketone
Creosote
Cresol
Silicates
Xylenes
Xylofen
Potassium acid carbonate
Sodium acid carbonate
Nitric acid 20%
Chromic acid
Citric acid
Hydrofluoric acid 30%
Phosphoric acid 75%
NameLatexNeopreneNitrilePVC
Lactic acid 85%
Formic acid 90%
Acetic acid
Oleic acid
Kwas siarkowy rozcieńczony (akumulator)
Concentrated sulfuric acid
Hydrochloric acid 30% and 5%
Oxalic acid
Magnesia
Butter
Mazut
2-Methoxyethanol
Methylamine
Mathylanine
Milk and dairy products
Monoethanolamine
Potassium permanganate
Naphtha fuel
Naphthalene
Alcoholic beverages
Non-alcoholic beverages
Fertilizer
Nitrobenzene
Nitropropane
Vinegar and spices
Ammonium acetate
Butyl acetate
Ethyl acetate
Vinyl acetate
Hair decolorants
Octanal
Peanut oil
Linseed oil
Diesel fuel
Paraffin oil
Castor oil
Canola oil
Soybean oil
Pine oil
Turbine oil
Olive oil
Hydraulic oils (petroleum)
Diesel fuels
Fuel oils
Perchloroethylene
Perfumes and essential oils
Sodium hypochlorite
Calcium hypochlorite
Produkty karbochemiczne ze smoły pogazowej, bez benzenu i toluenu
Petroleum products
Laundry detergents
Brake fluid
Fish and crustaceans
Zinc sulfate
Potassium sulfate
Sodium sulfate
Siarczyny, kwaśne siarczyny, podsiarczyny
Lard
Liquid grease
Styrene
Shampoos
Turpentine
Tetrachloroethylene
THF - Tetrahydrofuran
Toluene
Trichloroethylene (Tri)
Triphenylphosphine
Trinitrobenzene
Trinitrotoluene
Triethanolamine 85%
Mineral oils
Animal fats
Fixers
Slaked lime
Burnt lime
Acqua regia
Oxidized water
Sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution
Potassium hydroxide concentrated solution
Potassium hydroxide pellets
Sodium hydroxide concentrated solution
Sodium hydroxide pellets
Calcium hydroxide
Ammonium carbonate
Potassium carbonate
Sodium carbonate
Legend:
very good - the glove may be used for prolonged contact
good - the glove may be used for intermittent contact with the substance
medium - the glove may be used as a protection against chips
inadequate - the use of the glove is not recommended
You should remember that the resistance of the glove depends on many factors, such as: composition of the chemical substance, its temperature, glove thickness, duration of contact etc.
ATTENTION: it is recommended that the glove be tested before use to verify its actual functionality in the intended conditions of use.

List of standards

EN420

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Glove sizes according to EN420 standard:

Glove sizeHand sizeHand measurements (mm)Minimum glove length
DiameterLength
66152160220
77178171230
88203182240
99229192250
1010254204260
1111279215270

Protective gloves. General requirements and testing methods.

This standard describes general requirements and testing procedures for the design and production of gloves, gloves fabric resistance to water permeation, safety, comfort of use and efficiency, marking and information provided by the producer, which concern all protective gloves.

ATTENTION: This standard can be applied to arm guards and gloves which are permanently connected with safety housing.


EN388

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Tests and performance levels according to EN388

Test typePerformance level
12345
Abrasion resistance (cycles)10050020008000-
Blade cut resistance (factor)1,22,55,010,020,0
Tear resistance(N)10255075-
Puncture resistance (N)2060100150-
ATTENTION: If there is an X instead of a number value it means that the product has not been subject to any tests in the area in question.

Protective gloves against mechanical risks.

The EN388 standard applies to all types of gloves and concerns physical and mechanical risks posed by abrasion, cuts with sharp edges, puncture or tear. This standard does not apply to gloves resistant to vibration.

AResistance to abrasion (from 0 to 4). Based on the number of cycles required to abrade through the sample glove,
BBlade cut resistance (from 0 to 5). Based on the number of cycles required to cut through the sample at a constant speed,
CTear resistance (from 0 to 4). Minimum force required to tear the sample,
DPuncture resistance (from 0 to 4). Amount of force required to pierce the sample with a standard sized point.

EN388:2016

Tests and performance levels according to EN 388

TestLevel
12345
Abrasion resistance (number of rubs)10050020008000-
Coupe test: Blade cut resistance (index)1,22,55,010,020,0
Tear resistance (N)10255075-
Puncture resistance (N)2060100150-


TestLevel
ABCDEF
TDM: cut resistance (N)2510152230

ATTENTION: If there is an X instead of a number or letter value it means that the product has not been subject to any tests in the area in question.

Protective gloves against mechanical risks.

This Standard specifies requirements, test methods, marking and information to be supplied for protective gloves against the mechanical risks of abrasion, blade cut, tear, puncture and, if applicable, impact. This standard is intended to be used in conjunction with EN 420. The test methods developed in this standard may also be applicable to arm protectors.

AAbrasion resistance (from 0 to 4)
BBlade cut resistance tested with the coupe test (from 0 to 5)
CTear resistance (from 0 to 4)
DPuncture resistance (from 0 to 4)
ECut resistance tested with the TDM test EN ISO 13997:1999 (from A to F)
(F)Impact protection (P)

EN12477

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Protective gloves for welders.

This standard specifies the requirements and testing methods for gloves used in manual metal welding, cutting and similar techniques. Welding gloves are divided into two categories: B if a high degree of comfort is required, and A for other welding processes.

EN374-1

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Protective gloves against chemicals and microorganisms. Terminology and requirements.

This standard specifies the requirements for gloves which protect the user against chemicals and/or microorganisms. It defines the terminology which concerns: the fabric for gloves which protect against microorganisms, degradation, penetration, permeation of chemicals used in testing, breakthrough time. The requirements for gloves protecting against mechanical damage are not provided for in this standard.

EN374-2

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Protective gloves against chemicals and microorganisms. Determination of the resistance to penetration.

This standard specifies the testing method for the determination of gloves’ resistance to penetration of chemical products and/or microorganisms. If gloves pass the penetration tests according to this part of the EN374 standard, it means that they are an effective barrier against microbiological contamination.

EN374-3

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AMethanolBAcetone
CAcetonitrileDMethyl chloride
ECarbon disulphideFToluene
GDiethylamineHTetrahydrofurane
IEthyl acetateJn-Heptane
KSodium hydroxideLSulphuric acid 96%
Breakthrough time (minute)Protection index
>101
>302
>603
>1204
>2405
>4806

Protective gloves against chemicals and microorganisms. Determination of the resistance to permeation of chemicals.

The EN374-3 standard defines the resistance of materials used in the production of gloves to permeation of potentially dangerous chemicals, which are not gases, in case of a continuous contact. It should be emphasized that a test does not reflect the conditions in which a glove is used and test results, having relative value, may be used only to compare materials on the basis of their breakthrough time.

According to the updated version of the standard, a glove is considered to be resistant to the activity of chemicals if it obtains index 2 for three tested chemicals from the list below:

EN381-7

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Protection classChain speed
016m/s
120m/s
224m/s
328m/s

A Protection classes against cuts at a chain speed (0-3).

Protective clothing for users of hand-held chain saws. Requirements for chainsaw protective gloves.

This standard is one of the standards which concern personal protection equipment against dangers which arise from using hand-held chain saws.

Chainsaw protective gloves which protect against cutting are usually made of combination of materials including leather, textile and coated fabrics. The most important element is the pad on the back of the hand inserted beneath the external surface which protects against cuts. This pad is made of materials which are very resistant to cutting. The protection is provided by:

  • Making the chain slide on the fabric which prevents the fabric from being cut,
  • Pulling fibers inside the sprocket through the cutting teeth of the chain to block the chain,
  • Blocking the chain as a result of fibers absorbing the energy of circular motion which slows down the motion of the chain.

ATTENTION: None of the protective measures provides 100% protection against cuts by hand-held chain saws. However, some degree of protection can be provided by protective equipment.

EN1082-1

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Protective clothing. Gloves and arm guards protecting against cuts and stabs by hand knives – Chainmail gloves and arm guards.

This standard specifies the requirements for construction, performance characteristics, resistance to puncture, fastening straps, weight, material, marking and usage of gloves and arm guards. It also determines appropriate testing methods.

This norm applies to protective chainmail gloves and arm guards made of metal elements and plastics intended for users who work with hand knives.

Gloves which meet the requirements of this standard have to be used in case of workers who use knives with sharp points that move towards the second hand which is thus at risk of a direct contact with the knife – in such situations it is necessary to use gloves with enhanced protection made of metal chainmail.

This type of gloves is intended to be worn on one hand – the one in which the user does not hold a knife during work.

Usually, these gloves are made of stainless steel. They may feature a long or short cuff which protects a part of or the whole forearm.

The gloves should be selected in such a way as to fit the hand to provide optimum protection.

To increase the comfort of work, you may wear cotton gloves underneath the metal chainmail gloves.

EN1082-2

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Protective clothing. Gloves and arm guards protecting against cuts and stabs by hand knives. Gloves and arm guards made of materials other than chainmail.

This standard specifies the requirements for: design, blade cut resistance, puncture resistance and ergonomic properties, gloves resistant to cutting, arm guards and protective sleeves made of materials other than chainmail, hard metals and plastics which provide lower degree of protection against cuts and stabs than products listed in the first part of the standard.

The requirements set forth in this standard concern only those works which involve the use of a knife with a sharp point or knife which is used to cut in places situated at a distance from the hand or arm.

EN1082-3

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Protective clothing. Gloves and arm guards protecting against cuts and stabs by hand knives. Impact cut test for fabric, leather and other materials.

This standard specifies the requirements for testing the resistance to impact cuts of fabrics, leather and other materials.

EN14328

Protective clothing. Gloves and arm guards protecting against cuts by powered knives. Requirements and test methods.

The standard specifies the requirements for design, cut resistance, ergonomic properties, safety, finishing, construction of materials, marking and instruction manual for gloves and arm guards protecting against cuts by powered knives.

The standard also sets forth appropriate testing methods.

According to the standard, the only type of gloves which provide some degree of protection and which could be recommended for powered knives users are gloves made of metal chainmail.

ATTENTION: The results of tests demonstrate that powered knives are able to cut through such gloves, however, there is no other material that could provide sufficient and more effective protection in this area.

Metal chainmail gloves also give a warning – when there is a contact between the knife and the glove the noise and vibration warn the user that a quick reaction is necessary to avoid injury.

EN407

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Performance levelContact temperature (°C)Threshold time (s)
1100°C≥15s
2250°C≥15s
3350°C≥15s
4500°C≥15s

Gloves protecting against thermal risks (heat and/or fire).

The standard specifies testing methods, general requirements, thermal parameters levels and methods of marking protective gloves which protect against heat and/or fire. It applies to all gloves which are supposed to protect hands against heat and/or flames in one or a few of the following forms: fire, contact heat, convective heat, thermal radiation, small molten metal splashes or large liquid metal splashes.

  • A - Resistance to flammability (from 0 to 4). Based on the time the material continues to burn and melts after the source of ignition is removed,
  • B - Contact heat resistance (from 0 to 4). Based on the temperature range from 100°C to 500°C at which the user will feel no pain for at least 15 seconds,
  • C - Convective heat resistance (from 0 to 4). Based on the time during which the sample is able to delay the transfer of heat,
  • D - Radiant heat resistance (from 0 to 4). It indicates the length of time necessary for the sample to reach a given temperature,
  • E - Resistance to small molten metal splashes (from 0 to 4). It indicates the amount of heat necessary for the sample to reach a given temperature,
  • F - Resistance to large molten metal splashes (from 0 to 4). It indicates the amount of heat necessary to cause damage to the skin substitute placed directly beneath the sample.

ATTENTION: If there is an X instead of a number value it means that the product has not been subject to any tests in the area in question. 0 means that the product does not satisfy the minimum efficiency requirements for a given type of risk.

EN511

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Gloves protecting against cold.

This standard specifies the requirements and testing methods for gloves which protect against convective and contact cold in temperatures as low as -50°C. The cold may be related to the climate or professional activity. Particular technical parameters are specified in accordance with the requirements corresponding with each risk category or each area of special application.

AResistance to convective cold (from 0 to 4). Measurement of thermal insulation properties of the glove in m² x C/W,
BB Resistance to contact cold (from 0 to 4). Measurement of the thermal resistance of the glove in m² x C/W,
CWater impermeability (from 0 to 1). It determines whether or not water penetration appears within 30 minutes after the start of the test.

ATTENTION: If there is an X instead of a number value it means that the product has not been subject to any tests in the area in question.

EN1149-1

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Protective clothing. Electrostatic properties. Testing methods for surface resistivity.

This standard specifies minimum electrostatic requirements and testing methods for protective gloves and anti-static clothing with the aim of preventing the appearance of sparks which could cause fire. These requirements are not sufficient when working in flammable environments with increased oxygen levels and the testing method is not appropriate for fabrics which contain conductive fibers. This standard does not apply to mains voltage.

EN60903

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Live work. Electrical insulating gloves.

This standard specifies the requirements for gloves made of insulating materials and three-finger and five-finger gloves which are used alongside protective leather gloves and are put on the insulating gloves to provide extra mechanical protection.

The standard defines requirements for electrical insulating gloves without the mechanical reinforcement. It determines the classes and categories of gloves, physical properties, range and methods of electrical, mechanical and thermal testing.

EN10819

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Examples of sources of vibration which affects upper limbs

  • handheld shock tools which run on pneumatics, hydraulics or electrics (pneumatic drills, rammers for moulding compounds and concrete, riveters, hammer drills, impact guns etc.),
  • handheld rotary tools which run on electrics or gas (drills, grinding machines, chainsaws etc.),
  • machine and vehicle control levers operated with hands,
  • vibration which results from applied technologies (e.g. holding elements which are to be finished or during the processes of grinding, reducing surface roughness, polishing etc.)

Mechanical vibration and shock. Vibration which affects human body through the upper limbs – Method of testing and evaluation of vibration transmissibility of gloves to the worker’s palm.

This standard defines the procedures of laboratory testing and methods of data analysis and preparing reports from the testing of vibration transmissibility of gloves where the vibration is transmitted from the test handle to the palm in a frequency range of 31,5-250Hz.

The standard specifies the requirements for testing in the central area of the protective glove. There are no requirements which concern testing in the area of fingers. However, anti-vibration material should also cover the area of fingers.

Symptoms and prevention

Mechanical vibration transmitted to the body through the upper limbs may cause diseases in the following systems:

  • Blood circulation (cardiovascular system), e.g. paroxysmal circulation disorders in fingers; discoloration of one or more fingers, i.e. Raynaud’s phenomenon,
  • Nervous system, e.g. sense of touch disorders, vibration sense, temperature anomalies, numb or tingling fingers, hands or entire upper limbs,
  • Osteoarticular system, e.g. deformation of joint space, calcification in the joint capsules, periosteal changes, changes in bone density.

In many countries, Poland included, these disorders collectively known as “vibration syndrome” are considered to be occupational diseases. Over the last years, in Poland around 200 persons a year have been diagnosed with vibration syndrome!

To prevent the negative effects of vibration or limit their influence anti-vibration gloves should be used. It should be emphasized that anti-vibration gloves not only protect against vibration transmitted from the tools to the hands of the operator, but also protect hands against cold and moisture which could reinforce the negative effects of vibration and contribute to quicker development of vibration syndrome. Anti-vibration gloves are included in the list of personal protection equipment which are subject to mandatory certification. Only certified products should be used.

Source: www.CIOP.pl

Attention: The pictogram for EN10819 standard belongs to Raw-Pol Sp.J.

Contact with foods

Examples of active food ingredients (which are subject to tests) and their food counterparts:

Distilled watereggs, honey, milk, juices
Acetic acidsome processed fruit
Ethanolalcoholic products (beer, cider)
Olive oilfatty foods

Products which satisfy the requirements necessary to come into contact with foods may be used in food and pastry industry and others which involve direct contact with food.

The components of the glove are tested for the permeation of food products such as olive oil, 95% alcohol, active water ingredients to verify if the permeation does not exceed acceptable limits:

polymer (PVC) should not pass on to food its components in amounts larger than 10mg/dm2 of polymer or article surface – this is a so-called general permeation limit.

in case of some products there are specific requirements – this is a so-called specific permeation limit.

EN455-1

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Medical gloves for single use. Requirements and testing for freedom from holes.

The standard specifies the requirements and method of testing single use medical gloves for freedom from holes.

The standard uses the AQL term (Acceptable Quality Level) which refers to the impermeability of the product (but it may refer to other features – durability, the limit of average acceptable faults in the production process). All the defects found are classified into three levels: minor, major and critical. AQL value is defined as a percentage of defective products per 100 pieces.

As it is impossible to test all the gloves in the production process, the test is carried out on a sample randomly selected from a batch. The sample should be selected according to ISO 2859-1 standard guidelines.

EN455-2

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Medical gloves for single use. Requirements and testing for physical properties.

The standard describes the requirements and testing methods for physical properties of single use medical gloves (surgical gloves, examination/procedure gloves and others) to ensure that they provide and maintain during use adequate level of protection against mutual infection and impurities coming from both the patient and glove user.

EN455-3

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Medical gloves for single use. Requirements and testing for biological evaluation.

This standard describes the requirements concerning the evaluation of biological safety of single use medical gloves. The standard defines the requirements for marking and packaging of gloves and disclosure of information about testing methods. The standard provides an overview of immunology testing methods for extractable proteins and allergens.

EN455-4

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Medical gloves for single use. Requirements and testing for shelf life determination.

This standard describes requirements for shelf life determination for single use medical gloves.

EN1186-7

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Materials and products intended for contact with foodstuffs. Plastics – Testing methods for overall migration into aqueous food simulants using a pouch.

EN1186-14

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Materials and products intended for contact with foodstuffs. Plastics – Testing methods for overall migration from plastics intended to come into contact with fatty foodstuffs using test media iso-octane and 95% ethanol.

EN421

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Protective gloves against ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination.

The requirements and test methods for protective gloves against ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination. The standard applies to gloves to protect hands offered as well as other parts of the hands and arms. The requirements of the standard are also used for gloves mounted fixed in sealed chambers which are radioactive contamination.

EN13997

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Protective clothing. Mechanical properties. Determination of resistance to cutting by sharp objects.

The standard presents a method of testing for cutting and related with it calculations used for materials and material combinations of protective clothing.

Determined resistance to cutting by sharp edges such as knives, sheet metal parts, swarf, glass, sharp tools and castings. They do not include puncture resistance of materials pointed objects such as needles and spikes, tests of materials made of braided rings and metal plates, as well as provisions regarding protection of machine operators.

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